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#1 2008-12-14 23:11:28

Nata6a-gor
Member

Горожанцева. 2 часть анализа

1.    Dominique de Villepin (born Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin

(Доминик де Виллепин) (born 14 November 1953 in Rabat, Morocco) served as the Prime Minister of France from 31 May 2005 to 17 May 2007.
A career diplomat, Villepin rose through the ranks of the French right as one of Jacques Chirac's protégés. He came into the international spotlight as Foreign Minister with his opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq which culminated with a speech to the United Nations (French address on Iraq at the UN Security Council).
A French judicial process has been commenced against Villepin in connection with the Clearstream Affair. Magistrates are investigating whether he was complicit in allowing false accusations to proceed against presidential rival Nicolas Sarkozy regarding bribes paid on a sale of warships to Taiwan.[1][2] Recently, however, Villepin has enjoyed a modest return to public favour for his public critique of President Sarkozy's style of imperial rule.
Villepin was also heavily involved in developing the French foreign policy leading up to the Rwandan genocide. In August 2008 an independent Rwandan commission published a report on France's role in the genocide, including the name of Dominique de Villepin among the names of the French officials responsible for training troops and militia who carried out the massacres.
The increased perception among many politicians on the right was that Villepin was aloof and had no experience or understanding of grassroots politics, and owed his enviable position only to being Chirac's protégé.
Villepin has an uneasy relationship with the members of his own political side. He has in the past made a number of demeaning remarks on members of parliament from his own party.
He was appointed Foreign Minister by Chirac in the cabinet of Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin at the beginning of his second term in 2002.
His actions against radical Islam included mandatory courses for Muslim clerics, notably in the French language (a third of them do not speak it), in moderate Muslim theology and in French secularism: laïcité, Republican principles and the law.

2.     Contrat Première Embauche (CPE), or First Employment Contract
Main article: First Employment Contract
On Thursday, 16 March 2006, tens of thousands of French university and school students marched to demand the government scrap a contentious youth jobs clause, known as CPE. The law, intended as a response to the 2005 riots, was intended to stimulate job growth and arrest the 23% youth unemployment rate by allowing employers to fire employees aged under 26 within the first two years of their employment for any or no reason. Supporters of the law argued that such probationary arrangements are not unusual in Western countries and that the current system in France discourages employers from hiring people whom they may be unable to fire if they prove unsuitable for the job. Critics argue that it discriminates unnecessarily against the young and decreases job security. The union movement issued an ultimatum to Villepin to scrap the law by 20 March or face a general strike. This ultimatum expired without concession. A general strike was called for 28 March. On 28 March, between one and three million people demonstrated across France. The protests were accompanied by some violence and 800 people were arrested, 500 of them in Paris. Prime Minister Villepin refused to withdraw the CPE but called for negotiations on adapting it. The demonstrators for the most part called for the complete withdrawal of the CPE.
This event resulted in criticism even from Villepin's own UMP party, with UMP parliamentarians including National Assembly vice-president Yves Bur suggesting that president Chirac should appoint another Prime Minister.
However, Villepin obtained favorable reviews from the press and temporarily increased popularity in polls. In particular, he was increasingly cited as a possible presidential candidate for 2007, although Nicolas Sarkozy had publicly stated that he himself was giving considerable attention to that election. Villepin and Sarkozy initially avoided any open division.
В 2006 году его правительство инициировало введение «контракта первого найма». Он рассчитан на молодежь до 26 лет и имеет сокращенные социальные гарантии, включая право работодателя уволить работника в течение первых двух лет без объяснения причин и традиционного для Франции специального разбирательства в суде по вопросам занятости. Против этого нововведения выступили студенческие активисты и оппозиционная Социалистическая партия. К протестующим присоединились профсоюзы. В результате длительного противостояния между правительством и обществом, сопровождавшегося массовыми акциями протеста, власть пошла на уступки, принципиально изменив уже проведённый через парламент закон. Его новая редакция предусматривает, что государство будет оказывать финансовую помощь работодателям, нанимающим работников в возрасте от 16 до 25 лет, а также в течение первого года работы молодым работникам будет выплачиваться ежемесячное пособие в размере 400 евро. Новый законопроект обойдется французскому правительству в 150 млн евро в 2006 году.
Эти события существенно отразились на популярности де Вильпена, который сделал серьёзную ставку на этот закон в первоначальном варианте: в апреле 2006 его работу на посту премьера одобряли лишь 24 % респондентов. Это обстоятельство сделало невозможным выдвижение его кандидатуры на президентских выборах 2007 года.
15 мая 2007 правительство Доминика де Вильпена подало в отставку, которую принял президент Ширак накануне передачи власти новоизбранному главе государства Саркози.
3.    Gaz de France (GDF) (Euronext: GAZ) — французская газовая компания, вторая по величине в Европе. Штаб-квартира — в Париже.
Слияние Suez и Gaz de France одобрено советами директоров компаний
Советы директоров Suez и Gaz de France в воскресенье одобрили слияние этих французских компаний, сообщает AFP. По данным агентства, на заседании совета директоров Suez решение о слиянии было поддержано единогласно. В Gaz de France против сделки выступили представители профсоюзов, в голосовании также не принял участие один из членов совета директоров, который не присутствовал на заседании в субботу.
80,2 процентов акций компании Gaz de France до конца 2006 года принадлежали государству. Специально для готовящегося слияния с Suez доля государства в Gaz de France была снижена до 34 процентов. Решение о продаже Suez пакета акций, ранее принадлежавшего государства, объяснялась необходимостью защиты Gaz de France от поглощения итальянской компанией Eni.
После завершения сделки, ожидающегося в середине 2008 года, объединенный Gaz de France-Suez станет четвертой по величине энергетической компанией в Европе после российского "Газпрома", французской Electricite de France (EDF) и германской E.ON. Правительство Франции сохранит в объединенной компании блокирующий пакет акци в 34 процента. Генеральным директором Gaz de France-Suez, как ожидается, станет глава Suez Жерар Местралле (Gеrard Mestrallet).
После завершения борьбы за покупку Endesa в центре внимания снова оказалось другое крупное слияние в энергетическом секторе Европы. Речь идет о двух французских концернах Suez и Gaz de France. Даже участвующие в сделке менеджеры уже почти не верят в успех сделки. Поэтому участники рынка обеспокоены судьбой Suez, если его слияние с Gaz de France все-таки не состоится.
Еще весной 2006 года глава правительства Франции Доминик де Вильпен активно способствовал рождению проекта слияния Suez с Gaz de France, объясняя это стремлением защитить Suez от поглощения итальянским концерном Enel. 

4.    PARIS--Two weeks ago a 23-year-old man initially identified as "Ilan" was found by a passerby stumbling in a field near the railroad tracks in the Essonne region south of Paris. Handcuffed, naked, with four-fifths of his body covered with bruises, stab wounds and serious burns, Ilan died in the ambulance on the way to the hospital.
Soon after, police provided more details. The victim had been kidnapped Jan. 20 and held for 24 days by a gang from the banlieues, the poor suburban projects that ring the French capital, who eluded capture while repeatedly contacting Ilan's family with ransom demands. 
Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin declared, in a long speech delivered at the annual dinner of the CRIF, that this heinous crime was anti-Semitic, and that anti-Semitism is not acceptable in France. He promised that the perpetrators would be captured and punished. 

Состоялись похороны зверски убитого 24-летнего юноши еврейской национальности Илана Халими (Ilan Halimi). Преступная группа 20 января 2006 года обманом похитили молодого человека, избили, пытали и 3 недели держали в пустой квартире в бедном районе "Bagneux". Приманкой к месту похищения стала девушка, с которой Илан познакомился 17 января в салоне сотовой связи, где он работал. Молодого человека нашли 13 февраля 2007 года без одежды, с кляпом во рту, обоженного и в наручниках на железнодорожном полотне в пригороде Парижа. Он полученных травм он скончался по дороге в больницу. Похороны прошли в пригороде Парижа "Пантин" (Pantin), Франция, 17 февраля 2007. На фото - мать убитого Рут Халими (Ruth Halimi).


5.    Haaretz Daily Newspaper Israel, Israeli News Source   Haaretz.com, the online edition of Haaretz Newspaper in Israel, offers real-time breaking news, opinions and analysis from Israel and the Middle East. Haaretz.com provides extensive and in-depth coverage of Israel and the Jewish World.

6.    Sciences Po
Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris
http://www.sciences-po.fr/

• Sciences Po, the University also known as IEP (Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris), is located right in the heart of Paris, in the historic Saint-Germain-des-Prés/Quartier Latin neighborhood.

• Since its foundation in 1872, Sciences Po has been training the best students not only in France but also of Europe for leadership. At present, Sciences Po offers professional education ranging from undergraduate to doctoral level, and prepares its graduates to pursue their future careers in various paths such as international business, public administration and service sector, multilateral organizations and many other fields of endeavor. Sciences Po consists of 4 main components: academic and professional training, research, library, University Press.
    Villepin studied at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris (Sciences-Po).

7.    Jean-Pierre Raffarin listen (help•info) (born 3 August 1948) is a French conservative politician and senator for Vienne.
Jean-Pierre Raffarin served as the Prime Minister of France from 6 May 2002 to 31 May 2005, resigning after France's rejection of the referendum on the European Union draft constitution. However, after Raffarin resigned, he said that his decision was not based on the outcome of the vote. Opinion polls following his resignation suggested that Raffarin was one of France's least popular prime ministers since the Fifth Republic was established in 1958. However, according to the book "France: 1815 - 2003", written by Martin Evans and Emmanuel Godwin, Raffarin was "a remarkably popular prime minister" despite his ability "to state the obvious and to make empty statements".
Raffarin's resignation was accepted by President Chirac on 30 May 2005, after the "no" victory at the European Constitution referendum, and he was replaced as Prime Minister by Dominique de Villepin.
8.    2003 Heatwave Killed 20,000 In Italy, Many More Than Thought


The heatwave that hit much of Europe in 2003 killed almost 20,000 people throughout Italy, the national statistics institute said on Monday, more than doubling the previous official estimate of the toll and taking it above that recorded in neighbouring France.
The report by the Istat institute found that 20,000 more people died in the country between July and September 2003 than in the same period of the previous year.
The 2003 heatwave killed an estimated 15,000 mostly elderly people in France, causing a political shockwave in a country that prides itself on its public health system.
   

9.    Дворец Матиньон (фр. hôtel Matignon), реже Отель Матиньон — официальная резиденция премьер-министра французского правительства, расположенная по адресу ул. Варенн 57 (Varenne) в 7-ом округе Парижа.

La Malédiction Matignon
Bruno Dive, Françoise Fressoz
Edition PLON
Voici un livre que les passionnés de la vie publique dévoreront. Il y a eu en France, depuis 1958, 18 Premiers ministres (Jacques Chirac l'a été deux fois), dont une femme. Des personnalités différentes, des tempéraments opposés, des contextes politiques variés, des conjonctures économiques plus ou moins heureuses. Pourtant, le chef du gouvernement traverse une série de passages obligés, de la nomination à l'impopularité, sans oublier les bras de fer avec le chef de l'Etat et les tensions avec les autres ministres ou avec la majorité.
Проклятье Матиньона


Премьер-министр де Вильпен, один из кандидатов в преемники президента Ширака на выборах 2007 года, имеет все шансы пополнить список политиков, карьеру которых прервали бунты парижских школяров. К ним в стране с 1968-го элита относится нервно: 38 лет не срок, чтобы забыть, как взбунтовавшиеся Сорбонна с Нантерром отправили в отставку президента де Голля.
Ситуацию усугубляют и новые политические поверья: Франция явно претендует на рекорд по отставкам премьеров. За 25 лет премьерская резиденция — Матиньонский дворец — 26 раз меняла хозяев (ФРГ — 9, Испания — 8). Специалистка по местной закулисе из «Монд» Рафаэль Баке объясняет этот феномен крылатой фразой Жака Ширака. «Пост премьера никогда не оставляет времени на раздумья», — обронил как-то президент, не раз бывший главой кабинета и сам. Если верить такой трактовке, премьеру де Вильпену не хватило времени подумать об одной из самых острых проблем — безработице среди молодежи. Во Франции она в 2,6 раза выше, чем в среднем по стране (в той же ФРГ — всего в 1,2 раза). Но выхода не было: бунты в пригородах, где безработица и вовсе за 50%, показали, что откладывать с лечением нельзя. Вот премьер и форсировал принятие новой редакции «Первого контракта по найму», которая позволяет увольнять молодежь до 26 лет без соблюдения норм Трудового кодекса в течение двух лет.

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#2 2008-12-15 04:45:02

morning
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Re: Горожанцева. 2 часть анализа

СТАТЬЯ ПОЛНОСТЬЮ:

France
Dominique de Villepin's many dramas
Mar 2nd 2006
From The Economist print edition
DOMINIQUE DE VILLEPIN knows a thing or two about crisis management. He was President Jacques Chirac's first chief of staff in 1995, which proved a baptism of fire when France promptly restarted nuclear testing in the south Pacific. Two years later, he advised the president to dissolve parliament in the face of huge street protests, only to see the centre-right lose its parliamentary majority to the Socialists. And in 2003 he was foreign minister when France was vilified in America for its active opposition to the war in Iraq. But even this hardened political firefighter, who is now Mr Chirac's prime minister, must be finding the latest outbreaks quite a challenge.

Over the past few weeks, Mr de Villepin has rushed from one drama to the next. No sooner had he dealt with the fallout from Mr Chirac's humiliating decision last month to call home the Clemenceau, a decommissioned, asbestos-laden aircraft-carrier that had been sent to India for scrap, than panic about bird flu broke out in France. Since the discovery of a dead duck carrying the H5N1 virus near Lyons, the disease has spread to a poultry farm, for the first time in Europe. To the indignation of France's vocal farmers,'43 countries have now banned French imports of poultry and foie gras.

Since then, disasters have multiplied. An epidemic of a mosquito-borne disease, chikungunya, has struck the French island of Reunion and led to 77 deaths. Fears of a new wave of anti-Semitism were unleashed after the grotesque kidnap, torture and murder of a Jewish man by a gang in a Paris suburb. Even the merger of two French energy companies announced last weekend by the prime minister, followed by this week's anti-foreign-takeover plans, seemed to be put together in panic. The picture is of a government on the defensive, improvising reactions to events. Mr de Villepin's popularity slumped during February by 11 points, according to a CSA poll, to a lowly 36%.

Plainly, these events are unconnected in any sense other than the political trouble they present. Only two might be called blunders. The return of the Clemenceau was a victory for green activists, who had accused France of exporting toxic waste to the third world. Not true, the government replied: it was not sending "waste" to India, but "war equipment", and so could legally do so even though large amounts of asbestos still had to be stripped out. It was only when the Conseil d'Etat, France's highest administrative court, ruled in February that the hulk was in fact "waste", that Mr Chirac, on the eve of an official visit to India, ordered the ship home.

The chikungunya outbreak also appears to have involved political neglect. Last year, despite a rapidly rising number of cases, the National Institute of Health Surveillance declared that the disease was "not a worrying phenomenon" for public health. As recently as January, Xavier Ber-trand, the health minister, described it as "not fatal". Not until last weekend did Mr de Villepin fly off to the island, announcing €76m ($9om) in aid. The government, said Francois Hollande, the Socialist leader, had shown "intolerable indifference" to the epidemic.

But even the other events reinforce the impression of a government caught off guard. In the case of the energy merger, the underlying principle is unsurprising. Mr de Villepin has made "economic patriotism" his mantra, denouncing hostile takeovers by foreigners at every turn. The difference in the latest case, a merger of Gaz de France and Suez, is the perception of indecent haste. Mr de Villepin approved the deal only after it became clear that Suez was vulnerable to a hostile Italian bid, holding a press conference on a Saturday to make the surprise announcement. Since the deal means going back on a promise not to privatise Gaz de France, the unions see it as a ploy to sell the utility by stealth: a strike has been called next week.

In the case of the abduction and murder of Ilan Halimi, there was frustration among French Jews that it took so much time to recognise its anti-Semitic nature (see box on next page). The public prosecutor initially said that there were no grounds to suspect anti-Semitism. The government, Halimi's uncle told Haaretz, an Israeli newspaper, was "afraid of reigniting confrontation with the Muslims." It was Nicolas Sarkozy, the interior minister, who first used the term "anti-Semitism", in  parliament. Days later, after pressure for a gesture of solidarity, Mr Chirac and Mr de Villepin were at a memorial service for Halimi in Paris's main synagogue.

The last thing Mr de Villepin needed was the bird-flu scare. But might it provide an opportunity to counter the impression of ill-preparedness? He had, after all, put an emergency ministerial team in place, and ordered vaccinations, before the disease actually arrived. A simulation of a human infection was organised in Lyons. This week, with European Union approval, France began vaccinating geese and ducks in the south-west. During a five-hour visit to the (birdless) Paris agricultural show, Mr de Villepin tucked into as much chicken as he could lay his hands on.

Sometimes, a well-managed crisis can boost a politician's standing-or perhaps provide cover for other unpalatable policies. It cannot harm Mr de Villepin that France's health scares have been grabbing headlines at a time when he is trying to push through parliament a more flexible-but hugely unpopular-new employment contract for those under 26. Resistance to this is fierce, and may account for much of the recent drop in his popularity. A rise in unemployment in January, to 9.6%, the first increase since the prime minister took over last May, has not helped. Next week mass student protests will be staged against the contract.

The trouble is that health scares tend to affect political popularity only when they go wrong. "A badly managed health crisis can destroy a politician, but nobody thanks one for a catastrophe that doesn't happen," says Dominique Reynie, a political scientist at the Sciences-Po university in Paris. Jean-Pierre Raffarin, the previous prime minister, never recovered his credibility after thousands died while ministers were on holiday during a heatwave in the summer of 2003. Worse, under the fifth republic, prime ministers have consistently suffered from what is known as the malediction de Matignon. Once confidence in the polls has been lost, no prime minister has fully recovered-and none has gone on directly to win the presidency.

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#3 2008-12-17 00:25:40

Nata6a-gor
Member

Re: Горожанцева. 2 часть анализа

Очевидно, что между этими событиями нет никакой связи, кроме тех политических проблем, о которых они свидетельствуют. Только два из них можно считать  результатом  грубых ошибок. Возвращения авианосца «Клемансо» добились активисты Greenpeace, обвинившие Францию в загрязнении стран третьего мира токсичными отходами. Правительство заявило, что это неправда: в Индию были отправлены не «отходы», а «военная техника», и на вполне законных основаниях, несмотря на то, что большое количество  асбеста ещё необходимо было выгрузить. Но в феврале высшим административным судом Франции было установлено, что судно представляет собой не что иное как «отходы». Только тогда, как раз накануне своего официального визита в Индию, президент Ширак приказал вернуть судно домой.
Вспышка  чикунгунской лихорадки, кажется, осложняется равнодушным отношением политиков. В прошлом году национальный институт здравоохранения заявил, что, несмотря на всё возрастающее число случаев заболевания, оно не представляет опасности для здоровья граждан. В январе Ксавье Бертран, министр здравоохранения, заявил, что лихорадка не смертельна. И лишь на прошлой неделе Доминик де Вильпен вылетел на остров, объявив о выделении 76 миллионов евро ($90 млн.) на борьбу с эпидемией.  По словам Франсуа Олланда, лидера социалистической партии, правительство продемонстрировало «недопустимое безучастие» в  решении этих проблем.

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